Rotary/gnome engines were used to power aircrafts during WW-I & radial engines during WW-II. Then came the era of jet engines which completely revolutionized the aviation technology ! Jet engines were very much efficient & powerful than those used during World wars ! The power jet engines deliver is so high that an airplane weighing hundreds of tons lifts off the ground with such ease. How are they capable of producing so much of power/thrust ?
So lets not waste our time & have a look on how do jet engines work ? more “How do Gas turbines/Jet propulsion engines work ?”
Human being started using animals to carry load when it exceeded his carrying capacity. Then he started building machines to carry even more load & to transport faster. Today huge trucks carry massive amounts of load & the best example is the biggest truck in the world – The BelAZ 75710 which can carry 450 tons of dirt. Still, there was something left, something to be made to carry these massive rockets & space shuttles. So how are they transported ? The answer is – CRAWLER !
Crawlers are a pair of tracked vehicles used by NASA to transport rockets & space shuttles from NASA’s Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) to the Launch Complex 39 !
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, USA. Launch Complex 39 is composed of three launch pads—39A, 39B and 39C.
The Crawlerway is a 40 m double pathway at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. It runs between the Vehicle Assembly Building and the two launch pads at Launch Complex 39.
- The crawler-transporter is the largest self-powered land vehicle in the world.
- The crawler has a mass of 2,721,000 kilograms (5,999,000 lb) and has eight tracks, two on each corner.
- The vehicle measures 40 by 35 metres (131 by 114 ft). The height from ground level to the platform is adjustable from 6.1 to 7.9 m (20 to 26 ft), and each side can be raised and lowered independently.
- As of 2003, each crawler had 16 traction motors, powered by four 1,000 kW (1,341 hp) generators, in turn driven by two 2,050 kW (2,750 hp) V16 ALCO 251C diesel engines.
- The crawler’s tanks holds 19,000 liters (5,000 U.S. gal) of diesel fuel, and it roughly burns 296 liters per kilometer (125.7 U.S. gal/mi).
- The new upgrade to one of the crawlers increased it’s capacity from 5,400,000 to 8,200,000 kg.
- The crawler is controlled from two control cabs located at either end of the vehicle, and travels along the 5.6 km (3.5 mi) crawlerway.
- The maximum speed of crawler is 1.6 km/h (1 mph) loaded, or 3.2 km/h (2 mph) unloaded.
- The average trip time from the VAB along the Crawlerway to Launch Complex 39 is about five hours.
- Kennedy Space Center has been using the same two crawlers, nicknamed “Hans” and “Franz”.
- Each of the two crawlers cost about US $14 million !!!
- In their lifetime, they have traveled more than 5,500 km (3,400 mi), about the same driving distance as from Miami to Seattle.
source & mediasources :- <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crawler-transporter#cite_note-NASAsci-3" target="_blank">wikipedia.org</a>
Earlier in the Engines section we saw how 4 stroke & 2 stroke engines work ! We might like to give a thought on which is better one OR which has more advantages. So in this article we are going to discuss about the differences, advantages & disadvantages of 4 stroke & 2 stroke engine. more “Differences, Advantages & Disadvantages of 4 stroke vs 2 stroke engine”
Human started with just wheels for travelling & transportation purposes at first. Then came bikes, cars & trains which could be driven on land. The next difficulty was to overcome the vast oceans & seas which led to invention of ships. Engineers are still finding ways to make today’s vehicles more better & efficient even though we have achieved success in almost every mode of travelling & transportation. One of the extraordinary machine in history of vehicles is hovercraft. Lets see how does a hovercraft works ? more “How does a hovercraft work ? | Design & Application”
The carriage drivers whipcrack (We will get to this term soon) the whip . So we thought that the whip must be hitting the animal or perhaps must be hitting itself & that might be the reason why we are able to hear the loud sound ! But aa-aa, that’s not the reason and also there isn’t a small sound speaker to produce sound (humour me & ignore it 😛 ). Everyone must have observed this… but ever thought about it that how & why does a whip make a cracking sound ? more “How & why does a whip make a cracking sound ?”
In my previous article, we learned how 4 stroke engines work ! This time we will learn about the second type of engine i.e 2 stroke engine. The 2 stroke engine is a type of Internal combustion engine where one power cycle is completed with two strokes of the piston during only one rotation of crankshaft. The first commercial two-stroke engine involving in-cylinder compression is attributed to Scottish engineer Dugald Clerk.
The 2 stroke engine performs all the same steps which are performed by 4 stroke engine – suction, compression, expansion & exhaust; but the 2 stroke engine performs these all steps in only 2 stroke unlike the 4 stroke engine which completes one power cycle in 4 strokes. more “How does a 2 stroke engine work ?”
These are the most basic engines used in cars & bikes i.e Four stroke cycle petrol engine OR 4 stroke engine(often called). It is very easy to understand until & unless you wanna do all the thermodynamic calculations & all that stuff ! more “How does a 4 stroke engine work ?”